To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and promote gender-equitable land tenure, discriminatory laws, institutions, and customary practices need to be addressed.
From large land acquisitions that displace communities without due compensation, to the encroachment of mining on indigenous lands, to the brunt of climate change and natural disasters, to everyday land and property deprivation by kin or state, women are typically more harshly impacted by land tenure insecurity due to discriminatory laws and lingering social bias.
For millions of rural women their nexus to the land – their lifeline, home, livelihood, and social security – often teeters on the strength of their relationship to their father, husband, brother or son. In many contexts, they lack direct, unmediated rights to the land. They face layers of discrimination in both the law and in practice, fueled by their gender, race, ethnicity, affiliation, orientation, age, or social status.
Laws and social norms impose barriers to women’s right to own and access to land. In more than half the world, laws, and more often gender bias, and discriminatory social norms entrench women’s unequal rights to access, use, inherit, transfer, control, benefit from, and own land discount their input into decisions about the fate of their land, and dismiss their compensation or redress claims when the land is taken by an investor, corporation, powerful local leader, the government, or even their kin.
Research affirms that secure land rights can be transformational for women, their families, and communities. The Global Agenda for Sustainable Development spotlights land as a critical driver, and regional efforts reflect growing political support for women’s land rights. Broad coalitions of NGOs and civil society rally around regional and global calls. The Deliver for Good campaign spotlights women’s land rights as critical to a holistic gender-responsive implementation of the sustainable development agenda. A recently launched Africa Land Policy Initiative campaign calls for 30 percent of documented land in women’s name individually or jointly.
Women across the globe have formed collectives and networks and forged innovative approaches to secure land rights for communities, within communities and households. Women to Kilimanjaro mobilized women across Africa to climb up the continent’s highest peak to stand up for women’s right to land. Indigenous women in Latin America and Asia – often at great personal risk – are leading movements for rights to their land and resources.
Research demonstrates links between strengthening women’s rights to land and productive assets and women’s increased participation in household decision making. Women’s land rights are generally considered secure if they are defined clearly and for a known duration; socially and legally legitimate and recognized; unaffected by changes in social status that would not affect men’s tenure security (such as dissolution of marriage by divorce or death), enforceable and directly exercisable without an additional layer of approval that applies only to women.
Извор: WUNRN – 11.11.2016