Non-Standard Employment as Temporary Work, Part-Time Work - Women High % - Challenges for Benefits, Security + Overall Risks
Non-standard forms of employment – including temporary work, part-time work, temporary agency work and other multi-party employment arrangements, disguised employment relationships and dependent self-employment – have become a contemporary feature of labour markets the world over.
This report documents the incidence and trends of non-standard forms of employment across different countries of the world and explores the reasons behind this phenomenon, including increased firm competition, shifting organizational practices of firms, and changes and gaps in the regulation of work.
While women make up less than 40 per cent of total wage employment, they represent 57 per cent of part-time employees. Many women work part time as it allows them to combine paid work with domestic and care responsibilities. In countries such as Argentina, Germany, India, Japan, the Netherlands, Niger and Switzerland, there is more than a 25 percentage point difference in women’s participation as part-time employees when compared to men.
For some, working in NSE is an explicit choice and has positive outcomes. However, for most workers, employment in NSE is associated with insecurity. NSE can also pose challenges for enterprises, the overall performance of labour markets and economies as well as societies at large. Supporting decent work for all requires an in-depth understanding of NSE and its implications. This report details trends and consequences of NSE and draws on international labour standards and national experience to advance policy recommendations that help to ensure protection of workers, sustainable enterprises and well-functioning labour markets.
Direct Link to Full 396-Page 2016 ILO Report:
Non-standard employment poses risks for workers, firms, labour markets and society
NSE, particularly when it is not voluntary, may increase workers’ insecurities in different areas. While insecurities can also be present in standard employment relationships, they are less prevalent than in the different forms of NSE. Key findings include:
■ Employment security. Transitions from temporary to permanent employment range from a yearly rate of under 10 per cent to around 50 per cent, in countries with available data. The greater the incidence of temporary employment in the country, the greater the likelihood that workers will transit between NSE and unemploy- ment, with the possibility of transitioning to better jobs less likely.
■ Earnings. Workers in NSE face substantial wage penalties relative to comparable standard workers. For temporary employment, penalties can reach up to 30 per cent. Part-time employment is associated with wage penalties in Europe and the United States but carries wage premiums for higher-skilled workers in Latin America.
■ Hours. Workers in on-call employment and casual arrangements typically have limited control over when they work, with implications for work–life balance, but also income security, given that pay is uncertain. Variable schedules also make it difficult to take on a second job.
■ Occupational safety and health (OSH). There are significant OSH risks due to a combination of poor induction, training and supervision, communication break- downs (especially in multi-party employment arrangements) and fractured or disputed legal obligations. Injury rates are higher among workers in NSE.
■ Social security. Workers in NSE are sometimes excluded by law from social security coverage. Even when they are formally protected, lack of continuity in employment and short working hours may result in inadequate coverage or limited benefits dur- ing unemployment and retirement.
■ Training. Workers in NSE are less likely to receive on-the-job training, which can have negative repercussions on career development, especially for young workers.
■ Representation and other fundamental rights at work. Workers in NSE may lack access to freedom of association and collective bargaining rights either for legal reasons or because of their more tenuous attachment to the workplace. They may also face other violations of their fundamental rights at work, including discrimination and forced labour.
ILO – International Labour Organization
Извор: WUNRN – 21.11.2016